Tag Archives: AAO

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Eta Carinae and the Keyhole Nebula

Eta Carinae and the Keyhole Nebula

Diffuse gas and dust in the heart of the Carina Nebula. The bright star is Eta Carinae, a massive double star at the end of its live that will soon explode as a supernova. The “Keyhole” is the dark cloud in the centre of the image.

Image obtained as part of the “ABC Stargazing Live” events at Siding Spring Observatory (NSW, Australia), 4 – 6 April 2017.

Data taken on 3rd April 2017 using the CACTI camera in 2dF at the 3.9m Anglo-Australian Telescope. Color image using B (12 x 60s, blue) + [O III] (12 x 60 s, green) + Hα (12 x 60 s, red) filters.

More sizes and high-resolution image in my Flickr.

Credit: Ángel R. López-Sánchez (Australian Astronomical Observatory and Macquarie University), Steve Lee, Robert Patterson & Robert Dean (AAO), Night assistant at the AAT: Wiston Campbell (AAO).

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Milky Way rising, LMC, and AAT

Milky Way rising, LMC & AAT

Milky Way, Large Magellanic Cloud, and Anglo-Australian Telescope. Combination of. 6  frames, each of 30 seconds, CANON EOS 5D Mark III, 16mm, f/2.8, ISO 1600. Thursday 2 March 2017. The dome was illuminated in one of the frames by a car leaving the building.

More sizes and high-resolution image in my Flickr.

Credit: Ángel R. López-Sánchez (AAO/MQU).

Supernova remnant NGC 2018 with CACTI

Last Thursday 24th November I conducted an outreach exercise while supporting astronomical observations at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT). Using the Australian Astronomical Observatory (AAO) Twitter account I asked people to chose one of 4 given object located in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) to be observed at the telescope with the new CACTI camera while we were changing gratings of the scientific instrument, the spectrograph AAOmega. I’ve called the experiment “LMC Little Gems using CACTI”.

We got 193 votes, thank you to all of you who voted and also shared the post! It was quite exciting, particularly the last 30 minutes when, thanks to some of the best science communicators in Spain (and friends), we got +50 votes!

Well, here are the results:

  1. Cluster + nebula NGC 1949: 22%
  2. Globular cluster NGC 2121: 13%
  3. Supernova remnant NGC 2018: 34%
  4. Cluster + nebula NGC 1850: 31%

I must say my favorite was NGC 1949, but NGC 2018 was also a nice choice.

And the final color image of the object you chose to observe at the 3.9m Anglo-Australian Telescope is:

NGC 2018 - Supernova remnant in the LMC Data taken on 24 November 2016 as part of the AAO Outreach Exercise “Large Magellanic Cloud Little Gems with CACTI”. CACTI camera in 2dF @ 3.9m Anglo-Australian Telescope. Color image using B (6 x 10s, blue) + [O III] (6 x 60 s, green) + Ha (8 x 60 s, red) filters. Credit: Ángel R. López-Sánchez (Australian Astronomical Observatory / Macquarie University) & Steve Lee, Robert Patterson & Robert Dean (AAO) Night assistant at the AAT: Steve Lee (AAO).

NGC 2018, a supernova remnant in the LMC Data taken on 24 November 2016 as part of the AAO Outreach Exercise “Large Magellanic Cloud Little Gems with CACTI”. CACTI camera in 2dF @ 3.9m Anglo-Australian Telescope. Color image using B (6 x 10s, blue) + [O III] (6 x 60 s, green) + Ha (8 x 60 s, red) filters. A high resolution image can be obtained here. Credit: Ángel R. López-Sánchez (Australian Astronomical Observatory / Macquarie University) & Steve Lee, Robert Patterson & Robert Dean (AAO) Night assistant at the AAT: Steve Lee (AAO).

I’ve doing a bit of searching to get some extra information about this object. Indeed, the Large Magellanic Cloud has a high star-formation activity, meaning that star-cluster, star-forming nebula but also supernova remnants are all around the place. However, SIMBAD defines NGC 2018 as Association of Stars, and few references to this object to be a supernova remnant are found (e.g., here).

But looking at the image I can say that this definitively is a supernova remnant, yes, with an associated star cluster too (very probably, the sisters of the massive star that exploded as supernova). How? Well, do you see the filament structure seen in the green colour, that traces the [O III] emission? That is related to a supernova explosion, these features are usually not found in star-forming regions… unless you have a recent supernova explosion, as it is this case!

Thank you very much to all that participated on this outreach exercise! I really hope I can organize another experiment like this sooner than later!

AAT Outreach Exercise: “LMC Little Gems with CACTI”

Today, Thursday 24th November I’m the scheduled support astronomer at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT). It is a “2dF+AAOmega service night”, meaning that I’ll be observing “service programs”, that is, science projects that require less than 6 hours in total to be completed, using the 2dF+AAOmega instruments at the 3.9m AAT.

Additionally, I’ve requested additional ~30 minutes to try to use the new CACTI camera to get a new, nice outreach image of an interesting object. As I did last May I’m asking the public to please provide feedback and help us to decide.

What do you want the AAT observes tonight?

For today’s observations I have chosen 4 objects located in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC),  that is why I’ve called the experiment “LMC Little Gems using CACTI”.

The chosen 4 objects are these:

1. Stellar cluster + Nebula NGC 1949
2. Globular cluster NGC 2121
3. Supernova remnant NGC 2018
4. Stellar cluster + Nebula NGC 1850

Objects chosen for the "LMC Little Gems with CACTI" Outreach Exercise at the AAT. From top left to bottom right they are: 1. Stellar cluster + Nebula NGC 1949, 2. Globular cluster NGC 2121, 3. SN remnant NGC 2018, 4. Stellar cluster + Nebula NGC 1850. Credit of the images: Digital Sky Survey, except for NGC 1850 (ESO, image obtained using the FORS1 instrument at the VLT.

Objects chosen for the “LMC Little Gems with CACTI” Outreach Exercise at the AAT. From top left to bottom right they are: 1. Stellar cluster + Nebula NGC 1949, 2. Globular cluster NGC 2121, 3. SN remnant NGC 2018, 4. Stellar cluster + Nebula NGC 1850. Credit of the images: Digital Sky Survey, except for the image of NGC 1850, credited to ESO (image obtained using the FORS1 instrument at the VLT).

I chose objects in the LMC because this region of the sky can be observed during all night this time of the year.

In addition, getting these data for outreach purposes will not interfere too much with the scientific observations, as we need to change the configuration of the instrument (the gratings of the AAOmega spectrograph) and, while the night assistant is doing that, I will be taking the data of the object chosen by the public for this outreach exercise.

So, what do you think? What do you want the AAT observes tonight?

Please use your Twitter account and cast your vote following this link.

Assuming the weather is good and we don’t have any technical problems, I should have a new, nice outreach image obtained with CACTI at the AAT by tomorrow, Friday 25th November. Stay tuned!

StarFest 2016 in Coonabarabran

After a very intense trip to Spain during July to September, I’m finally back to Australia, just in time to participate in the amazing StarFest 2016 in Coonabarabran, the “Astronomical Capital of Australia”, where Siding Spring Observatory is located.

First, on Friday 30th September we enjoyed the “Science in the Pub” event. I was part of the panel with Elisabete da Cunha (ANU), Fred Watson (AAO), Brad Moore (iTelescope) and David Malin (AAO). We talked about how astronomical images are taken and how to get the colours in Astronomy, with a lot of fun facts (thanks Fred!) about “what our eyes and brain try to see”.

“Science in the Pub” event in Coonabarabran (NSW, Australia) during StarFest 2016, Friday 30th September 2016. Participants are (from left to right): Ángel López-Sánchez (AAO/MQU), Elisabete da Cunha (ANU), Fred Watson (AAO), Brad Moore (iTelescope) and David Malin (AAO). High resolution version here. Photo credit: Steve Chapman (AAO).

StarFest 2016: Science in the Pub

Selfie Elisabete da Cunha and me took just moments before starting the “Science in the Pub” event in Coonabarabran (NSW, Australia) during StarFest 2016, Friday 30th September 2016. High resolution version here. Photo credit: Steve Chapman (AAO).

At the end of this very funny event we received a very special gift: one of my latest astronomical images of the Milky Way over the AAT framed! I was soooo excited, I almost cried, as I didn’t expect this. Thank you very much for the gift!

Me and the gift I received after the “Science in the Pub” event in Coonabarabran (NSW, Australia) during StarFest 2016, Friday 30th September 2016. High resolution version here. Photo credit: Steve Chapman (AAO).

 

On Saturday October 1st was the “Siding Spring Observatory Open Day”. Besides the bad weather, we had plenty of visitors of all ages, from kids to students to elders, all interested about Astronomy and Space. As usual I couldn’t stop talking to everyone, but I also took some photos. As I was jet-lagged (it was just 36 hours after I landed on Sydney) I was very early at the AAT and took some few photos with all ready to go!

StarFest 2016 at the 3.9 AAT

The Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT) is ready to start StarFest 2016!. Photo taken on Saturday 1 October 2016 during Siding Spring Observatory Open Day, part of StarFest 2016, in Coonabarabran (NSW, Australia). High resolution version here. Photo credit: Ángel R. López-Sánchez (AAO/MQ).

A lot of visitors at the Anglo-Australian Telescope during StarFest 2016 in Coonabarabran (NSW, Australia). Photo taken on Saturday 1 October 2016 during Siding Spring Observatory Open Day, part of StarFest 2016, in Coonabarabran (NSW, Australia). High resolution version here. Photo credit: Ángel R. López-Sánchez (AAO/MQ).

Doug Gray (AAO) explains how the AAT works to visitors of StarFest 2016. Photo taken on Saturday 1 October 2016 during Siding Spring Observatory Open Day, part of StarFest 2016, in Coonabarabran (NSW, Australia). High resolution version here. Photo credit: Ángel R. López-Sánchez (AAO/MQ).

StarFest 2016 at the 3.9 AAT

A wonderful local orchestra was playing famous themes inside the AAT dome during the StarFest 2016. Photo taken on Saturday 1 October 2016 during Siding Spring Observatory Open Day, part of StarFest 2016, in Coonabarabran (NSW, Australia). High resolution version here. Photo credit: Ángel R. López-Sánchez (AAO/MQ).

More photos are available in my album “AAO Outreach” in my Flickr.

However, it was particularly exciting to have a local orchestra playing in the dome! I don’t know who had the idea but was great, so I hope they do it again in the future. I couldn’t help myself and took this video of the orchestra playing two very famous themes: Star Wars and Indiana Jones.

A local orchestra plays the Star Wars & Indiana Jones themes inside the dome of the 3.9m Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT) at Siding Spring Observatory near Coonabarabran (NSW, Australia) during StarFest 2016. Saturday 1 October 2016. Video credit: Ángel R. López-Sánchez (AAO/MQ).

I really enjoyed this day, and I’m looking forward participating again in StarFest 2017!

Kathryn’s Wheel: A ring of fireworks around a nearby galactic collision

Story based on the news release about Kathryn’s Wheel I prepared for the Australian Astronomical Observatory webpage.

The majority of the galaxies in the Universe can be classified into two well-distinguished classes: spiral galaxies (as our own Milky Way Galaxy) or elliptical galaxies. Spiral galaxies have on-going star-formation activity, possess a lot of young, blue stars, and are rich in gas and dust. However elliptical galaxies are just made up of old stars, with no signs of star formation, gas and dust. Besides these two large galaxy classes, some galaxies are found to have irregular or disturbed morphologies. That is certainly the case of many dwarf galaxies. A disturbed morphology is typically indicating a galaxy that has experienced an interaction with a nearby companion object. Indeed, all galaxies are experiencing interactions and mergers with other galaxies during their life time: the theory currently accepted about how galaxies grow and evolve naturally explains the building of spiral galaxies as mergers of dwarf galaxies, and the birth of an elliptical galaxy after the merger of two spiral galaxies. This will actually be the final destiny of our Milky Way, when it is colliding and merging with the Andromeda galaxy in around 4.5 billions years from now.

When galaxies collide, stars and gas are pulled out from them by gravity, and long tails of material stripped from the parent galaxies are formed. Famous galaxies in interaction developing these long “tidal tails” are the Mice Galaxies (NGC 4676) and the Antennae Galaxies (NGC 4038/4039). Very rarely, the geometry of the galaxy encounter is such that a small galaxy passes through the centre of a spiral galaxy creating a collisional ring galaxy. The ring structure is created by a powerful shock wave that sweeps up gas and dust, triggering the formation of new stars as the shock wave moves outwards. The most famous ring galaxy is the Cartwheel (ESO 350-40) galaxy, which is located at 500 million light-years away in the Southern constellation of the Sculptor. However complete ring galaxies are extremely rare in the Universe, only 20 of these objects are known.


Images of the interacting galaxies The Mice (NGC 4676), the Antennae Galaxies (NGC 4038/4039), and the Cartwheel (ESO 350-40) galaxy. Credit: The Mice: NASA, H. Ford (JHU), G. Illingworth (UCSC/LO), M.Clampin (STScI), G. Hartig (STScI), the ACS Science Team, and ESA, Antennae Galaxies: Robert Gendler, The Cartwheel: ESA/Hubble & NASA.

An international team of astronomers led by Prof. Quentin Parker (The University of Hong Kong / Australian Astronomical Observatory) has discovered a nearby ring galaxy which in some ways is similar to the Cartwheel galaxy but 40 times closer. The system was discovered as part of the observations of the AAO/UK Schmidt Telescope (UKST) Survey for Galactic H-alpha emission. Completed in late 2003, this survey used the 1.2m UKST at Siding Spring Observatory (NSW, Australia) to get wide-field photographic data of the Southern Galactic Plane and the Magellanic Clouds using a H-alpha filter. This special filter is able to trace the gaseous hydrogen (and not the stellar emission) within galaxies, allowing astronomers to detect the ionized gas from nebulae. The survey films were scanned by the SuperCosmos measuring machine at the Royal Observatory, Edinburgh (UK), to provide the online digital atlas “SuperCOSMOS H-alpha Survey” (SHS). When using this survey to search for new, undiscovered planetary nebulae (dying stars which often show ring morphologies in nebular emission) in the Milky Way, the team realised that a very peculiar of these structures was actually found around a nearby galaxy, ESO 179-13, located in the Ara (the Altar) constellation. The reason why this magnificent collisional ring structure has been unknown by astronomers is that it is located behind a dense star field (this area of the sky is very close to the Galactic plane, where the majority of the Milky Way stars are located) and very close to a bright foreground star.

Discovery images of the “Kathryn’s Wheel” using the data obtained at the 1.2m UKST by the “SuperCOSMOS H-alpha Survey” (SHS). The left panel (SR) shows the red image tracing mainly the stars. The three main components of the system are labelled. The central panel shows the image using the H-alpha filter (Hα), which sees both the diffuse ionized gas and the stars. The right panel (Hα-SR) shows the continuum-substracted image of the system, revealing for the very first time the intense collisional star-forming ring. Image credit: Quentin Parker / the research team.

The discovery SHS images of the system reveal 3 main structures (A, B and C) plus tens of H-alpha emitting knots making the ring. Component A is the remnant of the main galaxy, the collisional ring is centered on it. Component A does not possess ionized gas (that is, it does not have star-formation at the moment). On the other hand, component B seems to be the irregular, dwarf galaxy (“the bullet”) that impacted with the main galaxy. Component B does possess a clumpy and intense H-alpha emission.

Astronomers have dubbed this ring galaxy as “Kathryn’s Wheel” in honour of the wife of one of the discoverers, Prof. Albert Zijlstra, (University of Manchester, UK). Kathryn’s Wheel lies at a distance of 30 million light years away, and therefore it is an ideal target for detailed studies aiming to understand how these rare collisional ring galaxies are formed, the physics behind these structures, and their role in galaxy evolution. Interestingly, the collisional ring is not very massive: its mass is only a few thousand million Suns. This is less than ~1% of the Milky Way mass, indicating that ring galaxies can be formed around small galaxies, something that was not considered so far.

(Left) Colour image of the collision, made by combining data obtained at the Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Observatory (CTIO) 4-metre telescope in Chile. The H-alpha image is shown in red and reveals the star-forming ring around the galaxy ESO 179-13, that has been dubbed “Kathryn’s Wheel”. Image credit: Ivan Bojicic / the research team. (Right) Image showing only the pure H-alpha emission of the system highlighting just the areas of active star formation. For clarity any remaining stellar residuals have been removed. Image credit: Quentin Parker / the research team.

Furthermore, the galaxy possesses a lot of diffuse, neutral hydrogen in its surroundings. This cold gas is the raw fuel that galaxies need to create new stars. Observations using the 64-m Parkes radiotelescope (“The Dish”, Parkes, NSW) as part of the “HI Parkes All-Sky Survey” (HIPASS) revealed that the amount of neutral gas around Kathryn’s Wheel is similar to the amount of mass found in stars in the system. Astronomers are unsure about from where this cold gas is coming from, although they suspect it mainly belonged to the main galaxy before the collision started. However, as the remnant of the galaxy (component A) does not have star-formation at the moment, it seems that the diffuse gas has been expelled from the centre of the system to the outskirts of the galaxy.

The results were published in MNRAS in August 2015.
MNRAS 452, 3759–3775 (2015) doi:10.1093/mnras/stv1432
Kathryn’s Wheel: a spectacular galaxy collision discovered in the Galactic neighbourhood
Authors: Quentin A. Parker, Albert A. Zijlstra, Milorad Stupar, Michelle Cluver, David J. Frew, George Bendo and Ivan Bojicic

Gas, star-formation and chemical enrichment in the spiral galaxy NGC 1512

How do galaxies grow and evolve? Galaxies are made of gas and stars, which interact in very complex ways: gas form stars, stars die and release chemical elements into the galaxy, some stars and gas can be lost from the galaxy, some gas and stars can be accreted from the intergalactic medium. The current accepted theory is that galaxies build their stellar component using their available gas while they increase their amount of chemical elements in the process. But how do they do this?

That is part of my current astrophysical research: how gas is processed inside galaxies? What is the chemical composition of the gas? How does star-formation happen in galaxies? How galaxies evolve? Today, 21st May 2015, the prestigious journal “Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society”, publishes my most recent scientific paper, that tries to provide some answers to these questions. This study has been performed with my friends and colleagues Tobias Westmeier (ICRAR), Baerbel Koribalski (CSIRO), and César Esteban (IAC, Spain). We present new, unique observations using the 2dF instrument at the 3.9m Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT), in combination with radio data obtained with the Australian Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) radio-interferometer, to study how the gas in processed into stars and how much chemical enrichment has this gas experienced in a nearby galaxy, NGC 1512.

Deep images of the galaxy pair NGC 1512 and NGC 1510 using optical light (left) and ultraviolet light (right).Credit: Optical image: David Malin (AAO) using photographic plates obtained in 1975 using de 1.2m UK Schmidt Telescope (Siding Spring Observatory, Australia). UV image: GALEX satellite (NASA), image combining data in far-ultraviolet (blue) and near-ultraviolet (red) filters.

NGC 1512 and NGC 1510 is an interacting galaxy pair composed by a spiral galaxy (NGC 1512) and a Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxy (NGC 1510) located at 9.5 Mpc (=31 million light years). The system possesses hundreds of star-forming regions in the outer areas, as it was revealed using ultraviolet (UV) data provided by the GALEX satellite (NASA). Indeed, the UV-bright regions in the outskirts of NGC 1512 build an “eXtended UV disc” (XUV-disc), a feature that has been observed around the 15% of the nearby spiral galaxies. However these regions were firstly detected by famous astronomer David Malin (AAO) in 1975 (that is before I was born!) using photographic plates obtained with the 1.2m UK Schmidt Telescope (AAO), at Siding Spring Observatory (NSW, Australia).

The system has a lot of diffuse gas, as revealed by radio observations in the 21 cm HI line conducted at the Australian Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) as part of the “Local Volume HI Survey” (LVHIS) and presented by Koribalski & López-Sánchez (2009). The gas follows two long spiral structures up to more than 250 000 light years from the centre of NGC 1512. That is ~2.5 times the size of the Milky Way, but NGC 1512 is ~3 times smaller than our Galaxy! One of these structures has been somehow disrupted recently because of the interaction between NGC 1512 and NGC 1510, that it is estimated started around 400 million years ago.

Multiwavelength image of the NGC 1512 and NGC 1510 system combining optical and near-infrared data (light blue, yellow, orange), ultraviolet data from GALEX (dark blue), mid-infrared data from the Spitzer satellite (red) and radio data from the ATCA (green). The blue compact dwarf galaxy NGC 1510 is the bright point-like object located at the bottom right of the spiral galaxy NGC 1512.
Credit: Ángel R. López-Sánchez (AAO/MQ) & Baerbel Koribalski (CSIRO).

Our study presents new, deep spectroscopical observations of 136 genuine UV-bright knots in the NGC 1512/1510 system using the powerful multi-fibre instrument 2dF and the spectrograph AAOmega, installed at the 3.9m Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

2dF/AAOmega is generally used by astronomers to observe simultaneously hundreds of individual stars in the Milky Way or hundreds of galaxies. Without considering observations in the Magellanic Clouds, it is the first time that 2dF/AAOmega is used to trace individual star-forming regions within the same galaxy, in some way forming a huge “Integral-Field Unit” (IFU) to observe all the important parts of the galaxy.

Two examples of the high-quality spectra obtained using the AAT. Top: spectrum of the BCDG NGC 1510. Bottom: spectrum of one of the brightest UV-bright regions in the system. The important emission lines are labelled.
Credit: Ángel R. López-Sánchez (AAO/MQ), Tobias Westmeier (ICRAR), César Esteban (IAC) & Baerbel Koribalski (CSIRO).


The AAT observations confirm that the majority of the UV-bright regions are star-forming regions. Some of the bright knots (those which are usually not coincident with the neutral gas) are actually background galaxies (i.e., objects much further than NGC 1512 and not physically related to it) showing strong star-formation activity. Observations also revealed a knot to be a very blue young star within our Galaxy.

Using the peak of the H-alpha emission, the AAT data allow to trace how the gas is moving in each of the observed UV-rich region (their “kinematics”), and compare with the movement of the diffuse gas as provided using the ATCA data. The two kinematics maps provide basically the same results, except for one region (black circle) that shows a very different behaviour. This object might be an independent, dwarf, low-luminosity galaxy (as seen from the H-alpha emission) that is in process of accretion into NGC 1512.

Map showing the velocity field of the galaxy pair NGC 1512 / NGC 1510 as determined using the H-alpha emission provided by the AAT data. This kinematic map is almost identical to that obtained from the neutras gas (HI) data using the ATCA, except for a particular region (noted by a black circle) that shows very different kinematics when comparing the maps.
Credit: Ángel R. López-Sánchez (AAO/MQ), Tobias Westmeier (ICRAR), César Esteban (IAC) & Baerbel Koribalski (CSIRO).

The H-alpha map shows how the gas is moving following the optical emission lines up to 250 000 light years from the centre of NGC 1512, that is 6.6 times the optical size of the galaxy. No other IFU map has been obtained before with such characteristics.

Using the emission lines detected in the optical spectra, which includes H I, [O II], [O III], [N II], [S II] lines (lines of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur), we are able to trace the chemical composition -the “metallicity”, as in Astronomy all elements which are not hydrogen or helium as defined as “metals”- of the gas within this UV-bright regions. Only hydrogen and helium were created in the Big Bang. All the other elements have been formed inside the stars as a consequence of nuclear reactions or by the actions of the stars (e.g., supernovae). The new elements created by the stars are released into the interstellar medium of the galaxies when they die, and mix with the diffuse gas to form new stars, that now will have a richer chemical composition than the previous generation of stars. Hence, tracing the amount of metals (usually oxygen) within galaxies indicate how much the gas has been re-processed into stars.


Metallicity map of the NGC 1512 and NGC 1510 system, as given by the amount of oxygen in the star-forming regions (oxygen abundance, O/H). The colours indicate how much oxygen (blue: few, green: intermediate, red: many) each region has. Red diamonds indicate the central, metal rich regions of NGC 1512. Circles trace a long, undisturbed, metal-poor arm. Triangles and squares follow the other spiral arms, which is been broken and disturbed as a consequence of the interaction between NGC 1512 and NGC 1510 (blue star). The blue pentagon within the box in the bottom right corner represents the farthest region of the system, located at 250 000 light years from the centre.
Credit: Ángel R. López-Sánchez (AAO/MQ), Tobias Westmeier (ICRAR), César Esteban (IAC) & Baerbel Koribalski (CSIRO).


The “chemical composition map” or “metallicity map” of the system reveals that indeed the centre of NGC 1512 has a lot of metals (red diamonds in the figure), in a proportion similar to those found around the centre of our Milky Way galaxy. However the external areas show two different behaviours: regions located along one spiral arm (left in the map) have low amount of metals (blue circles), while regions located in other spiral arm (right) have a chemical composition which is intermediate between those found in the centre and in the other arm (green squares and green triangles). Furthermore, all regions along the extended “blue arm” show very similar metallicities, while the “green arm” also has some regions with low (blue) and high (orange and red) metallicities. The reason of this behaviour is that the gas along the “green arm” has been very recently enriched by star-formation activity, which was triggered by the interaction with the Blue Compact Dwarf galaxy NGC 1510 (blue star in the map).

When combining the available ultraviolet and radio data with the new AAT optical data it is possible to estimate the amount of chemical enrichment that the system has experienced. This analysis allows to conclude that the diffuse gas located in the external regions of NGC 1512 was already chemically rich before the interaction with NGC 1510 started about 400 million years ago. That is, the diffuse gas that NGC 1512 possesses in its outer regions is not pristine (formed in the Big Bang) but it has been already processed by previous generations of stars. The data suggest that the metals within the diffuse gas are not coming from the inner regions of the galaxy but very probably they have been accreted during the life of the galaxy either by absorbing low-mass, gas-rich galaxies or by accreting diffuse intergalactic gas that was previously enriched by metals lost by other galaxies.

In any case this result constrains our models of galaxy evolution. When used together, the analysis of the diffuse gas (as seen using radio telescopes) and the study of the metal distribution within galaxies (as given by optical telescopes) provide a very powerful tool to disentangle the nature and evolution of the galaxies we now observe in the Local Universe.

More information

Scientific Paper in MNRAS: “Ionized gas in the XUV disc of the NGC 1512/1510 system”. Á. R. López-Sánchez, T. Westmeier, C. Esteban, and B. S. Koribalski.“Ionized gas in the XUV disc of the NGC1512/1510 system”, 2015, MNRAS, 450, 3381. Published in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (MNRAS) through Oxford University Press.

AAO/CSIRO/ICRAR Press Release (AAO): Galaxy’s snacking habits revealed

AAO/CSIRO/ICRAR Press Release (ICRAR): Galaxy’s snacking habits revealed

Royal Astronomical Society (RAS) Press Release: Galaxy’s snacking habits revealed

Article in Phys.org: Galaxy’s snacking habits revealed

Article in EurekAlert!: Galaxy’s snacking habits revealed

Article in Press-News.org: Galaxy’s snacking habits revealed

Article in Open Science World: Galaxy’s snacking habits revealed

ATNF Daily Astronomy Picture on 21st May 2015.